精华 how-to-write-a-node-cli-tools-with-commander
发布于 3 年前 作者 i5ting 2514 次浏览 最后一次编辑是 1 年前 来自 分享

how-to-write-a-node-cli-tools

什么是cli tools?

CLI(command-line interface,命令行界面)是指可在用户提示符下键入可执行指令的界面。

早启的unix/linux和DOS都是没有可视化界面的,那内存靠计算着用的时代都只能玩玩命令。

node cli

好处

  • 现在火,前端以及服务器端必备技能
  • js语法,非常好写
  • 对版本要求不像ruby那样苛刻

缺点,暂未知,看以后node的路吧

做法

创建git repo

git clone到本地

git clone git@github.com:i5ting/node-cli-demo.git

切换到项目目录

cd node-cli-demo

初始化npm

执行

npm init

一直回车,除非你真的有东西想改动,具体如下

➜  node-cli-demo git:(master) npm init
This utility will walk you through creating a package.json file.
It only covers the most common items, and tries to guess sane defaults.

See `npm help json` for definitive documentation on these fields
and exactly what they do.

Use `npm install <pkg> --save` afterwards to install a package and
save it as a dependency in the package.json file.

Press ^C at any time to quit.
name: (node-cli-demo) 
version: (1.0.0) 
description: 
entry point: (index.js) 
test command: 
git repository: (https://github.com/i5ting/node-cli-demo.git) 
keywords: 
author: 
license: (ISC) 
About to write to /Users/sang/workspace/github/node-cli-demo/package.json:

{
  "name": "node-cli-demo",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "node-cli-demo =============",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
  },
  "repository": {
    "type": "git",
    "url": "https://github.com/i5ting/node-cli-demo.git"
  },
  "author": "",
  "license": "ISC",
  "bugs": {
    "url": "https://github.com/i5ting/node-cli-demo/issues"
  },
  "homepage": "https://github.com/i5ting/node-cli-demo"
}


Is this ok? (yes) 
➜  node-cli-demo git:(master) ✗ 

创建文件

mkdir bin
mkdir test

touch bin/node-cli-demo.js
touch test/node-cli-demo.js

touch index.js
touch gulpfile.js

修改package.json

命令配置(至关重要)

  "preferGlobal": "true",
  "bin": {
    "badge": "bin/badge.js"
  },

此处是关键

preferGlobal确定你的这个命令是不是全局的,一定要设置为true,不然不放到path里,不能全局用的。

bin是配置你的cli名称和具体哪个文件来执行这个的

依赖

  "devDependencies": {
    "chai": "^1.9.2",
    "gulp": "^3.8.10",
    "gulp-istanbul": "^0.3.1",
    "gulp-mocha": "^1.1.1",
    "istanbul": "^0.3.2",
    "mocha": "^2.0.1",
    "sinon": "^1.11.1",
    "supertest": "^0.14.0",
    "supervisor": "^0.6.0",
    "zombie": "^2.1.1"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "commander": "^2.5.0",
		"config": "^1.7.0",
    "handlebars": "^2.0.0",
    "request": "^2.47.0"
  },

当前npm依赖dependencies

  • commander (命令辅助lib)
  • config (配置项)
  • handlebars (模板操作)
  • request (http请求库)

如果这些不够的话

npm install --save xxx

开发阶段的依赖devDependencies

  • mocha(测试相关)
  • gulp (项目构建相关的)

如果这些不够的话

npm install --save-dev xxx

scripts

  "scripts": {
    "start": "npm publish .",
    "test": " node bin/badge.js -t js -n q "
  },

这里定义了2个命令

  • npm start

这里我用它发布当前npm到npmjs.org上

  • npm test

这里我用它作为测试代码,避免每次都重复输入

修改 bin/node-cli-demo.js

	#!/usr/bin/env node
	/**
	 * Module dependencies.
	 */
	function isDefined(x) { return x !== null && x !== undefined; } 
	Array.prototype.contain = function(obj) {
	  return this.indexOf(obj) !== -1;
	}

	var program = require('commander');
	var version = require("../package.json").version;

	program
	  .version(version)
		.usage(" badge -n badge-cli -f [md] -t [npm] ")
		.option('-n, --name [name]', 'npm name,for example: q')
	  .option('-f, --format [format]', '可选值:url, markdown(默认值), html, textile, rdoc, asciidoc, rst')
	  .option('-t, --type [type]', '可选值:npm(默认值), ruby    , python    , bower    , github    , nuget    , php    , cocoapods    , perl  ')
		.option('-v, --verbose', '打印详细日志')
	  .parse(process.argv);

	var module_name = '';
	if(isDefined(program.name) == true && typeof program.name == 'string' ){
		module_name = program.name;
	}else{
		console.log('没有知道模块名称,请重新输入,比如\n\t badge -n badge-cli -f [md] -t [npm] ');
		return;
	}

	var format = "markdown";
	var type = "js";

	if (program.format) {
		format = program.format;
	}

	if (program.type) {
		type = program.type;
	}

	var verbose = false;
	if (program.verbose) {
		verbose = program.verbose;
	}

	var FORMATS = ['url', 'markdown', 'html', 'textile', 'rdoc', 'asciidoc', 'rst']

	if (FORMATS.contain(format) == false) {
		console.log('-f 可选值:url, markdown(默认值), html, textile, rdoc, asciidoc, rst');
		return;
	}

	var _verbose = verbose;
	function log(str){
		if(_verbose == true){
			console.log(str);
		}
	}

	log('format = ' + format);
	log('type = ' + type);
	log('name = ' + module_name);
	log('verbose = ' + verbose);

	// main 
	// require('../index')(module_name, type, format, verbose);

注意

  • shabang用法
	#!/usr/bin/env node
  • commander用法
	var program = require('commander');
	var version = require("../package.json").version;

	program
	  .version(version)
		.usage(" badge -n badge-cli -f [md] -t [npm] ")
		.option('-n, --name [name]', 'npm name,for example: q')
	  .option('-f, --format [format]', '可选值:url, markdown(默认值), html, textile, rdoc, asciidoc, rst')
	  .option('-t, --type [type]', '可选值:npm(默认值), ruby    , python    , bower    , github    , nuget    , php    , cocoapods    , perl  ')
		.option('-v, --verbose', '打印详细日志')
	  .parse(process.argv);

还是比较简单的

  • 参数的默认值
	var module_name = '';
	if(isDefined(program.name) == true && typeof program.name == 'string' ){
		module_name = program.name;
	}else{
		console.log('没有知道模块名称,请重新输入,比如\n\t badge -n badge-cli -f [md] -t [npm] ');
		return;
	}
  • 主文件
	// main 
  require('../index')(module_name, type, format, verbose);

注意主文件参数按需求定义

编写index.js

module.exports = function (module_name, type, format,verbose) {
	console.log('i am main file for cli');
}

编写test/node-cli-demo.js

var assert = require('chai').assert;
var expect = require('chai').expect;
require('chai').should();

describe('Node-cli-demo', function(){
	before(function() {
    // runs before all tests in this block
  })
  after(function(){
    // runs after all tests in this block
  })
  beforeEach(function(){
    // runs before each test in this block
  })
  afterEach(function(){
    // runs after each test in this block
  })
	
  describe('#save()', function(){
    it('should return test2 when user save', function(){
			assert.equal(1, 1);
    })
  })
})

增加自动测试和代码覆盖率

修改gulpfile.js

	var gulp = require('gulp');
	var istanbul = require('gulp-istanbul');
	var mocha = require('gulp-mocha'); 

	gulp.task('test', function (cb) {
	  gulp.src(['db/**/*.js'])
	    .pipe(istanbul()) // Covering files
	    .on('finish', function () {
	      gulp.src(['test/*.js'])
	        .pipe(mocha({
						ui : 'bdd',
						reporter: 'spec'
					}))
	        .pipe(istanbul.writeReports()) // Creating the reports after tests runned
	        .on('end', cb);
	    });
	});

	gulp.task('default',['test'], function() {
	  gulp.watch(['./db/**/*','./test/**/*'], ['test']);
	});

	gulp.task('watch',['test'], function() {
	  gulp.watch(['./db/**/*','./test/**/*'], ['test']);
	});

注意自己修改目录

  • src目录
  • 测试目录

测试

node_modules/.bin/gulp 

这时,你试试修改测试或源文件试试,看看会不会自动触发测试

当然,如果你喜欢只是测试一次,可以这样做

node_modules/.bin/gulp test 

如果你不熟悉gulp,可以再这里https://github.com/i5ting/js-tools-best-practice/blob/master/doc/Gulp.md学习

发布

npm start

技术

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

推荐

版本历史

  • v0.1.0 初始化版本

欢迎fork和反馈

如有建议或意见,请在issue提问或邮件

License

this repo is released under the MIT License.

欢迎关注我的公众号【node全栈】 node全栈.png

4 回复

demo 位置https://github.com/i5ting/node-cli-demo

推荐更好的写法

https://github.com/montagejs/minit/blob/master/cli.js

var fs = require("fs");
var path = require("path");

var Command = require("commander").Command;

var config = require("./package.json");
var create = require("./lib/create");
var serve = require("./lib/serve");

var cli = new Command();
//extras
cli.minitHome = __dirname + "/";
//
cli.version(config.version);
create.addCommandsTo(cli);
var serveCommand = cli.command('serve')
    .description('serve current directory with minit server.')
    .action(function(env){
        serve.serve(env);
    });
serve.addOptions(serveCommand);

exports.command = cli;

视频http://haoqicat.com/shiren1118/nodejs/1

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